Mongolia is certainly best known for its great history. Mongolian history reached its zenith in the thirteenth century when Chinggis Khaan collected the tribes of the steppes, named them Mongols, and with a nation of one million members and an army of hundred thousand horsemen, he conquered the most powerful civilizations of the era and created the greatest empire in world history.
During 1206-1263 Chinggis Khaan and his sons, grandsons created the Great Mongol Empire, world’s largest land empire. They sought to introduce a universal political and economic system with an international law, complete religious freedom, an international paper money system, and even a universal alphabet.
1206 – Chinggis Khaan created the Great Mongol Empire.
1260 – Chinggis Khaan’s grandson, Khubilai Khan, established the Yuan Dynasty in present China’s territory and named Beijing the new Capital of the Mongol Empire.
1691 – The Manchurians conquered Mongolia. Manchurian colonization lasted for 220 years.
1911 – Mongolia declared independence and proclaimed, Bogd Khan as Mongolia’s theocratic ruler.
1921 – Mongolia won its independence with support of Russian Red Army support and the socialist revolution, known as People’s Revolution took place
1924 – Mongolia became the second Communist country in the world, known as The People’s Republic of Mongolia and was under Communist regime for 70 years until 1990.
1990 – Mongolia’s Democracy revolution led to a multi-party system, a new constitution and a transition to a market economy. The first democratic elections took place.
1992 – Mongolia’s new constitution adopted and established a parliamentary democracy in Mongolia, guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression, unalienable rights, government setup, election cycle, and other matters.
1993 – A former MPRP member P.Ochirbat won the first direct presidential election.
1996 – The first non-Communist government elected.
1997 – MPRP candidate N.Bagabandi won the second presidential election.
2000 – MPRP party won election, new government formed by Prime Minister N. Enkhbayar.
2001 – President N.Bagabandi re-elected as president.
2004 – A coalition government was formed between MPRP and other parties, headed by Ts.Elbegdorj.
2005 – MPRP candidate N.Enkhbayar won presidential election.
2009 – Democratic Party candidate Ts.Elbegdorj won presidential election.
2012 – Democratic Party won most seats in election and formed coalition with MPRP.
2013 – President Ts.Elbegdorj re-elected as president.
Mongolia is a landlocked country, located at the eastern end of Central Asian plateau between China and Russia, covers an area of 1,566,500 square kilometres (604,247 square miles) and it takes 7th place in Asia and 18th place with its size in the world. This is roughly the size of Western Europe, the US state Alaska or Australia’s Queensland.
Mongolia’s location at the junction of the Central Asian steppe with the Siberian Taiga, or dense forest, and the Gobi desert zone, encircled by high mountains, gives the country a fascinating diversity. As country passes through several natural zones from north to south, the northern part is rich with forests, lakes and rivers. This is the Siberian taiga zone, with the largest fresh water lake in Central Asia, Khuvsgul Lake. The Southern part is characterized by desert and semi desert areas and well known Gobi Desert is located in the south of Mongolia. Moreover, the largest grasslands in the world are in the central and eastern part of Mongolia. The western part of country is very spectacular with its hundreds of clean blue lakes, rivers of different sizes and snow-capped high mountains. Khuiten peak of Altai Tavan Bogd mountain, the highest point of Mongolia at 4374 m, is located in the west of country.
Mongolia has two climatic zones: the continental zone in the north, and the desert in the south and four extremely continental seasons: that is hot in summer and very cold in winter. The country is situated at an average altitude of 1500 meters above the sea level at the heart central Asian continental, separated from seas and oceans, in the lee of surrounding high mountain chains results to its dry climate. Temperatures can fluctuate radically each day, dropping drastically at night, and differ greatly from season to season.
Mongolia’s long cold winter lasts from November to April, with an average temperature -24°C (-13°F), ranging from -21°C to -30°C (-5° to -22°F). Spring lasts from April to June. Summer lasts from June to August, with an average temperature of 20°C (65°F), ranging from 10° to 27°C (50° to 80°F). Autumn lasts from August to October. There are at least 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies, Mongolia is known as “The Land of the Blue Sky”.
Welcome to Ulaanbaatar
The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is the economic, political and industrial center of Mongolia and the main gate for trips to all destinations within the country, and its population as of 2014 is over 1.3 million. Ulaanbaatar was built in its current site in 1778 and named “Ikh Khuree”. Afterwards in 1924, the city was named Ulaanbaatar and declared the official capital of Mongolia. The capital has changed its location 29 times before settling in its present day location.
Ulaanbaatar is divided into nine districts: Baganuur, Bagakhangai, Bayangol, Bayanzurkh, Chingeltei, Khan-Uul, Nalaikh, Songino Khairkhan and Sukhbaatar. Each these districts are divided into sub districts and micro districts. The center of the city is Sukhbaatar square, from all other distances are measured.
The city has an ancient and nomadic past gives Ulaanbaatar a special atmosphere, and past 10 years changes and development made Ulaanbaatar one of the most modern cities. There are many services and interesting destinations such as European restaurants and pubs, international and traditional food services, theatres, museums, galleries, cinemas, national parks, monasteries, night clubs, shops and department stores.